Father of Bengali Nation

A blog of Moktel Hossain Mukthi

The Formation of an Independent Bangladesh

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The Formation of an Independent Bangladesh

What is now called Bangladesh is part of the historic region of Bengal, the northeast portion of the Indian subcontinent. Bangladesh consists primarily of East Bengal (West Bengal is part of India and its people are primarily Hindu) plus the Sylhet district of the Indian state of Assam.

West Pakistan and East Pakistan were united by religion (Islam), but their peoples were separated by culture, physical features, and 1,000 miles of Indian Territory.

The Formation of an Independent Bangladesh

Tension between East and West Pakistan existed from the outset because of their vast geographic, economic, and cultural differences. East Pakistan’s Awami League, a political party founded by the Bengali nationalist Sheik Mujibur Rahman in 1949, sought independence from West Pakistan. Although 56% of the population resided in East Pakistan, the West held the lion’s share of political and economic power. In 1970, East Pakistanis secured a majority of the seats in the national assembly. President Yahya Khan postponed the opening of the national assembly in an attempt to circumvent East Pakistan’s demand for greater autonomy. As a consequence, East Pakistan seceded and the independent state of Bangladesh, or Bengali nation, was proclaimed on March 26, 1971. Civil war broke out, and with the help of Indian troops in the last few weeks of the war, East Pakistan defeated West Pakistan on Dec. 16, 1971. An estimated one million Bengalis were killed in the fighting or later slaughtered. Ten million more took refuge in India. In Feb. 1974, Pakistan agreed to recognize the independent state of Bangladesh.

Founding president Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was assassinated in 1975, as was the next president, Zia ur-Rahman. On March 24, 1982, Gen. Hossain Mohammad Ershad, army chief of staff, took control in a bloodless coup but was forced to resign on Dec. 6, 1990, amid violent protests and numerous allegations of corruption. A succession of prime ministers governed in the 1990s, including Khaleda Zia, wife of the assassinated president Zia ur-Rahman, and Sheikh Hasina Wazed, the daughter of Sheik Mujibur.

Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina completed her five-year term as prime minister in July 2000—the first leader to do so since the country gained independence from Pakistan in 1974. In Oct. 2001 elections, Khaleda Zia again won the prime ministership and finally after seven years Sk. Hasina Wajed won the Prime Ministership once again in December, 2008.

West Pakistan and East Pakistan were united by religion (Islam), but their peoples were separated by culture, physical features, and 1,000 miles of Indian Territory. East Pakistan’s Awami League, a political party founded by the Bengali nationalist Sheik Mujibur Rahman in 1949, sought independence from West Pakistan. Although 56% of the population resided in East Pakistan, the West held the lion’s share of political and economic power. In 1970, East Pakistanis secured a majority of the seats in the national assembly. President Yahya Khan postponed the opening of the national assembly in an attempt to circumvent East Pakistan’s demand for greater autonomy. As a consequence, East Pakistan seceded and the independent state of Bangladesh, or Bengali nation, was proclaimed on March 26, 1971.  An estimated 3 million Bengalis were killed in the fighting or later slaughtered & ten thousands of women were raped by the Pakistani Army & their corroborators. Ten million more took refuge in India. In Feb. 1974, Pakistan agreed to recognize the independent state of Bangladesh.

 

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Author: muktimusician

In the year of 1953 I came to this beautiful world while violent storm was shivering mother earth. In the month of April on the 13th which happened to be a Tuesday, I cried for the first time on my mothers’ lap and all my relatives rejoiced. It was an occasion of double happiness because my birth brought the long happy New Year along with it.This is Mukthi, Mukthishena71, somebody called me Mokter, some one mothul, but in 1971 I have changed my name when I have joined the Liberation war as a freedom fighter. The freedom fighter of Bangladesh liberation war called Mukthi bahini / Mukthifouze / Mukthishena, just I have found the new name so no one can call me others name which is not perfect and didn’t like. I became Mukthi, Moktel Hossain Mukthi. I’m from South Akal Barish Village, Banshgadi Union under Kalkini UpaZila of Madaripur district. Basically I have sang tagore songs in the media. Sometimes composing the music and lyricist I couldn’t anything in my life. Neither had I done anything for the people nor for my family due to my abnormality in 1975 august. Whereas, I got so many opportunity/ chances in my life that I couldn’t proper used for the people whom I loved so much. I loved father of nation Bangabandhu we couldn’t safe him & his family in 1975 being a freedom fighter that was one kind of burning fire on my heartiest c I have cried a lot on the streets in 1975 for Bangabandhu even I was on the streets until midnight as a mad (I was in then PG Hospital under treatment of Dr. Hazera Mahtab (daughter of Late Dr. Ibrahim & wife of Dr. Fashiuddin Mahtab ) three months. the Ministry of Land allowed my job without pay of there months salary due to my abnormality. After liberation father of nation Bangabandhu & first Prime Minister of Bangladesh Late tajuddin Ahmed had given me a job in the ministry of land in 1972. I have worked with 11 Ministers & 9 full secretary including Abu Taher (Bangabandhu was selected him for Governor of Dhaka Division) M. Mokammel Huq, M. Keramat ALi, Golam Mostofa, jamsher Uddin Dr. Kamal Uddin Siddiqui, Md, Shahidul Alam and other so many. It is my great pleasure that I have worked with late abdur rob serniabat, Mollah Jalal, Sri Fonibhushon Majumdar, demoted Minister Mohamed Ullah (few days President of Bangladesh) I have beaten the police officer at Tejgaon Rail line in 1976 in absence of mind than finally central jail. The police beaten me whole night’s even put hot water to my face. Do you know why I have beaten that police officer? Yes, which I want to tell you that police sub inspector used slang and foul language to father of nation Shahid Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib, sheikh kamal, sheikh jamal and sheikh fazlul haque moni at that midnight while I was coming from FDC Studio. After 14 days my elder brother took out me from the custody and finally PG Hospital for mental treatment. Dr. said its not mental case, just keep him as he as wants to do. Second thing: I was in Japan in 1992. On e day I have participated 21 February program which was arranged by Bangladesh Embassy of Tokyo, Japan. The program will be inaugurated by the Deputy High Commissioner Bangabandhu murderer Lt. Col. Rashed Choudhury instead of the High Commissioner. The ex student leader Md. Kofiluddin, Akbor, Prince, mezbah, Apu sarwar will not allow Rashed Choudhury to touch the national and black mourn flags. They made rally to protect him from the inauguration program and I was one of them to protest & postpone entire program and if killer Rashed Choudhury inaugurate the program we will not perform at the same program. High Commission called police nearby 5 hundreds of police surround us. Police commissioner came and spokes all of us, than he realized the real situation. That was an ideals decision by all of us. The empty ground of Bengali nation will never be fulfilling without Shahid Bangabandhu & Late 4 National Leaders. I am writing the song of remembrances those heroes given the independence of Bengali nation & singing on occasionally. It is my great pleasure that I was closed to them all (from Kolkata) in 1971-1975 august 15. More interesting some of story I’d like to tell you. Later on I was PS to Md. Noor Ali, Chairmen & Managing Director, Unique Group (1997-2001). Noor Ali was nominated by Awami League in 2001 for Nawabganj constituency. Late Agricultural Economist Shankar Goswami, President Bangladesh Student League (former APS to HPM AFM Bahauddin Nasim was the Secretary General of NASIM GOSWAMI COUNCIL) was political secretary. Shankar and I lead the entire election campaign at Nawabganj in 2001. I have written 10 songs for that election and published an album in favor of BOATS & NOOR ALI. You know 2001 National Assembly Election was engineering by the army and CIA PISI so Awami league failure to get the power. Thereafter, it was very sad heart paining story. Some of miscreants suddenly had attacked to Unique Group to heats NOOR ALI but he was in out only they found some of staffs and me. They hits me, kicks me as the human people some times beating the animals. They took my hair from my foreheads’. I apologized for my campaign, album & supporting Awami league. I said forgive me, I beg pardon as a freedom fighter to them. Leave me the country, I will never come and never sing any songs of Bangabandhu & Awami league. Everything i have reported to present Finance Minister and other but no response properly and those miscreants had hurt me still their in Gulshan Banani area. Being a freedom fighter I want justice. I want a major punishment of OC Nassir who was in Gulshan PS in 2002. Still I don't know is he in job or not? No more dear friends …………… The memorial music album of Bangabandhu “mukthir gaan” 1 2 & 3 you may listen on: http://oneword.com/members/muktimusician/ http://www.facebook.com/bangabandhu.parisod https://profiles.google.com/muktimusician www.somewhereinblog.net/blog/muktimusician www.facebook.com/durnithi.rajnithi www.facebook.com/jatirjanokbangabandhu www.facebook.com/shadhinatha www.facebook.com/deshratna2009 www.youtube.com/muktimusician www.myspace.com/muktimusician www.dailymotion.com/muktimusician www.shtyle.com/muktimusician http://amramujibshena.blog.com/ http://bangabandhuporisad.webs.com http://bangabandhu.webs.com http://sheikhhasina.webs.com http://muktimusician.livejournal.com http://moktelhossainmukthi.blog.com http://sheikhhasina.blog.com http://thepatriosm.blog.com http://www.blogigo.co.uk/muktimusician http://mukthimadaripuri.blog.co.in http://muktimusician.blog.com http://muktimadaripuri.blogspot.com http://muktimusician.blogspot.com http://mukthircollection.blogspot.com http://muktimusician.amarblog.com http://priyo.com/muktimusician http://muktimusician.photobucket.com http://freedomfighters71.blogspot.com http://bangladeshawamileague.webs.com http://worldawamileague.blogspot.com http://muktimusician.blog.co.in http://jathirpitha.wordpress.com http://skmujiburrahman.blogspot.com http://skhasinawajed.blogspot.com http://muktimusician.wordpress.com http://muktimusician.blogspot.com http://bd.linkedin.com/in/muktimusician http://mukthircollection.blogspot.com http://muktimadaripuri.blogspot.com http://muktimusician.mediashare.com http://ziaandrazakars.blogspot.com http://khaledaziaandrazakars.wordpress.com http://warcriminalsinbangladesh.wordpress.com http://warcriminalsinbangladesh.blogspot.com http://warcriminalnizami.blogspot.com http://warcriminalsakachoudhury.blogspot.com http://godfathertareqzia.blogspot.com http://razakarnizami.blogspot.com http://freedomfighters71.blogspot.com http://muktimusician.picturepush.com http://community.webshots.com/user/muktimusician http://barristertaposhfanclub.blogspot.com www.myspace.com/muktimusician www.orkut.com/WARCRIMINALSINBANGLADESH www.warcriminalsinbangladesh.hi5.com www.facebook.com/muktimusician www.picasaweb.com/muktimusician www.orkut.com/muktimusician www.muktimusician.hi5.com www.youtube.com/deshnetree www.youtube.com/muktisena71 www.youtube.com/nizami71 www.tagged.com/amibangali www.tagged.com/muktimusician www.tagged.com/deshratna www.youtube.com/muktimusician www.shtyle.com/muktimusician www.facebook.com/muktimusician www.orkut.com/muktimusician www.quepasa.com/muktimusician www.tagged.com/mukthimadaripuri www.tagged.com/muktithegreat www.tagged.com/amibangali www.tagged.com/khankirpolababar www.bebo.com/muktimusician www.hibuu.com/muktimusician www.twitter.com/muktimusician www.zimbio.com/member/muktimusician www.facebook.com/janonetree sheikh hasina www.facebook.com/sheikhhasinafanclub www.facebook.com/shadhinatha www.facebook.com/jatirjanokbangabandhu www.facebook.com/thebrokenbackbone www.facebook.com/proggasrijanikhelaghor www.blogigo.co.uk/muktimusician www.facebook.com/thebrokenbackbone www.playlist.com/muktimusician www.last.fm/user/muktimusician

2 thoughts on “The Formation of an Independent Bangladesh

  1. Niazi planned rape of Bangalee women for ethnic cleansing

    In 1971, General AAK Niazi threatened that he would let loose his soldiers on the women of East Pakistan till the lineage or ethnicity of the Bangalees was changed, according to a new book.
    Maj Gen (retd) Khadim Hussain Raja, who was general officer commanding of 14 Division in the then East Pakistan, gave the account in his book titled A Stranger in My Own Country: East Pakistan, 1969-1971, published by Oxford University Press this year.
    The book is posthumously published probably because it was a hot potato in the times it was actually written, reports Pakistan based The Express Tribune on July 8.
    Page 98 of the book reads, “[Enter] Commander East Pakistan General Niazi, wearing a pistol holster on his web belt. Niazi became abusive and started raving. Breaking into Urdu, he said: Main iss haramzadi qaum ki nasal badal doon ga. Yeh mujhe kiya samajhtey hain. He threatened that he would let his soldiers loose on their womenfolk. There was pin drop silence at these remarks. The next morning, we were given the sad news. A Bengali officer Major Mushtaq went into a bathroom at the Command Headquarters and shot himself in the head.”
    General Tikka Khan disagreed with Raja that Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman be secretly dispatched to West Pakistan. He wanted to “publicly try Sheikh Mujib in Dhaka and hang him”, it also said.
    The Express Tribune report opens with, “Pakistan’s name has been blackened by just one man: General AAK ‘Tiger’ Niazi.”
    It adds, “Niazi surrendered to Indian General JFR Jacob in 1971. Niazi handed over his personal pistol at the famous Race Course ceremony. Jacob examined the weapon: the lanyard was greasy and frayed, and the pistol was full of muck as if it hadn’t been cleaned in a long while.” (Surrender at Dacca: Birth of a Nation; by Lt Gen JFR Jacob; Manohar Publishers 1997).
    General Ayub Khan, whose decade of rule caused the jurisprudence of separatism to evolve, gets the treatment he deserved through the testimony of another not-too-civilised general named Gul Hassan.
    “Gul Hassan openly criticised Field Marshal Ayub Khan’s sons who, according to him, were letting their father down by amassing wealth by unfair means. Gul Hassan blurted out that ‘I have told the old cock that this time we will impose Martial Law and take control ourselves but not protect Ayub and his henchmen’. The reference [old cock] was to General Yahya Khan, commander-in-chief of the Pakistan Army” (Page 8).
    The only leadership criterion was brutality riding on low IQ. The exception was General Yaqub Khan, the commander who insisted that General Yahya not postpone the session of the National Assembly elected after the 1970 election.
    The author writes: “All of a sudden, General Yaqub Khan was bundled off as a student on the Imperial Defence College course. This clumsy and unceremonious action was obviously taken to get him out of the way” (Page 7).
    Major General Rahim Khan was the other officer Pakistan can’t be proud of: “Rahim started to criticise the senior commanders in Dhaka, especially me, although I happened to be a friend of his. He was of the opinion that the Bengalis were timid people and should have been subdued long ago. The reader can judge for himself the ignorance and lack of understanding of the East Pakistan situation among the hawks in the armed forces” (Page 97).
    Rahim ran away from East Pakistan when things became too hot.
    Niazi also asked Raja for phone numbers of his Bangalee girlfriends: “Abhi tau mujhey Bengali girlfriends kay phone number day do” (Page 99).
    The Daily star ( dated 15.07.12)

  2. Digital Bangladesh Vision 2021 will need from both Public and Private sector an infusion of resources, leadership and ICT centered development if it is to be made meaningful. Over the last few decades, the world has been shifting from industrial to knowledge-based societies; the ability of a nation to use and create knowledge capital determines its capacity to empower and enable its citizens by increasing human capabilities. Easy access to knowledge, creation and preservation of knowledge systems, dissemination of knowledge and better knowledge services should be core concerns of the Digital Bangladesh Vision 2021. Bangladesh should be part of a well-crafted national strategy and “Digital Bangladesh”, needs to be the cornerstone strategy for Bangladesh. We have to build a people-centered,

    development-oriented Information Society, where everyone would be able to access, utilize and share information and knowledge easily and efficiently. The concept of Digital Bangladesh should be centered on the creation of what is popularly termed as a “knowledge- based society,” Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a critical component for building this knowledge-society. Our ability in creating and disseminating knowledge will
    eventually drive the nation’s growth in the coming days. A digital society ensures an ICT- driven knowledge-based society where information will be readily available online and where all possible tasks of the government, semi-government and also private spheres will be processed using state of the art technology. The first and foremost challenge to materialize the Digital Bangladesh Vision 2021 would be to ensure overall connectivity at an affordable cost. With the intent to enhance connectivity emphasis should be provided on the establishment of infrastructures to “Connect the Unconnected” and importance must be given on laying more optical fiber to reach the marginal people of the country. Digital Bangladesh Vision 2021 should establish technology- driven e-governance which includes e-administration, e-education, e-health, e-commerce, e- production, e-agriculture, etc. in the five focus areas of the knowledge paradigm:
    1) Access to Knowledge
    2) Knowledge concepts
    3) Creation of Knowledge
    4) Knowledge Applications
    5) Delivery of Services
    1. Access to Knowledge:
    Providing access to knowledge is the most fundamental way of increasing the opportunities and reach of individuals and groups. Therefore, means must exist for individuals who have the ability to receive and comprehend knowledge to readily obtain it. This also includes making accurate knowledge of the state and its activities available to the general public. Project, should be immediately initiated with an objective to facilitate the establishment of a firm presence of Bangladesh Government entities on the Web with two way communication capability or Web 2.0. The Program requires provision of an entire spectrum of web services to the Government sector as well as running specialized Portals for the benefit of citizens and other stakeholders.
    2. Knowledge Concepts:
    Knowledge concepts are organized, distributed and transmitted through the education system and that’s why we need an NREN in Bangladesh. It is through education that an individual can make better informed decisions, keep abreast of important issues and trends around him or her and most importantly, question the socio-economic arrangements in a manner that can lead to change and development. In fact, a successful “Digital Bangladesh” would need a more literate population. A mass computer-literacy program or even a government- sponsored computer course, offered perhaps as an incentive for every student who completes his or her secondary-school education, would benefit everyone. If there is will – backed by investment – there is a way.

    3. Creation of Knowledge:

    A nation can develop in two ways – either it learns to use existing resources better, or it discovers new resources. Both activities involve creation of knowledge. This makes it important to consider all activities that lead to the creation of knowledge directly or help in protecting the knowledge that is created. To realize the aspirations of the 2021 vision, the country must be able to produce its own engineers, scientists and technological know-how.

    4. Knowledge Applications:
    Knowledge can be productively applied to promote technological change and facilitate reliable and regular flow of information. This requires significant investment in goal-oriented research and development along with access models that can simplify market transactions and other processes within an industry. Initiatives in the areas of agriculture, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and traditional knowledge can demonstrate that knowledge can be very effectively applied for the betterment of the rural poor.

    5. Delivery of Services:

    Knowledge services have the potential to simplify many different points at which citizens interact with the State. Traditionally, these points of interaction have been vulnerable to unscrupulous activities and rent-seeking. We need to set the bureaucracy under an e- governance initiative, with a transparent file tracking system that the public can access. This will, right away, reduce corruption, because everyone involved in the process can be tracked
    down. Technology provides us with an opportunity to ensure accountability, transparency and efficiency in government services. E-governance is one of the ways in which citizens can be empowered to increase transparency of government functioning, leading to greater efficiency and productivity. E-Governance aims to place the government within the reach of all citizens increasing transparency and citizen’s participation. Thus, the development of e-Governance should promote universal access to government’s services, integrate administrative systems, networks, and databases, and make such information available to the citizen via Internet. In a nutshell such e-Governance should transform the government into a citizen centric technological driven one. There are various dimensions to building a Digital Bangladesh, all of which are equally important pillars.
    A Digital Bangladesh may constitute the following goals:

    1) Build excellence in the educational system to meet the knowledge challenges of the
    21st century by strengthening the education system, promote domestic research and innovation, facilitate knowledge application in sectors like health, agriculture, and industry.
    2) Leverage information and communication technologies to enhance governance and improve connectivity that allows ICT-based services to be deployed equitably throughout his nation.
    3) Devise mechanisms for exchange and interaction between knowledge systems in the Global arena.
    4) Promote creation of knowledge in S&T laboratories that utilizes information technologies and communication networks for dissemination and exchange of knowledge.
    5) Promote knowledge applications in agriculture and industry so that they can use ICTs for marketing and promotion of its products, for producing internal efficiencies, and for communication and transaction between entities.
    6) Promote the use of knowledge capabilities in making government an effective, transparent and accountable service provider to the citizen and promote widespread sharing of knowledge to maximize public benefit.

    World Bank Supports Digital Bangladesh through National Identification System

    WASHINGTON, May 10, 2011 – The World Bank today approved a US$195 million concessional credit for the Identification for Enhanced Access to Services (IDEAS) Project to assist the Government of Bangladesh in developing a reliable and accurate national identification (ID) system that will enable efficient and transparent delivery of benefits and services to the people, particularly the poor.
    Establishing a full-fledged and reliable national Identification system would significantly improve the delivery of public and private services. The system will be built upon the existing voter-list database by the Bangladesh Election Commission. Identification numbers and cards will be issued to about 90 million Bangladeshi citizens of age 18 and above within next five years. Modern technology will be used to produce robust national ID cards to protect the citizens from fraud and forgery.
    “A comprehensive national identification system will transform the way in which public services, including social benefits, are delivered to recipients,” said Ellen Goldstein, World Bank Country Director for Bangladesh. “It will also assist in better planning, minimizing corruption and increasing transparency in service delivery.”
    The project also serves as the foundation for the Government’s “Digital Bangladesh by 2021” program, which envisions the mainstreaming of information technology as a pro-poor tool to reduce poverty, establish good governance and ensure social equity.
    “An important foundation for effective service delivery is the country’s capacity to identify citizens accurately and quickly,” said Junghun Cho, Project Team Leader. “The system will assist public agencies in identifying and verifying the identities of citizens as well as compiling data that would help focus social programs to those most in need. It is also expected that private sector entities, such as banks and mobile companies, will benefit from their increased capacity to verify service users.”
    The core information available through the system will also help track many other transactions undertaken by the public sector, including collection of tax revenues, and systematize a wide range of record-keeping, from land ownership to utility connection.
    The IDEAS Project would aid Government’s effort to establish a reliable and authoritative national identification system that can serve as an efficient, secure data platform. The project would focus on developing a legal and policy framework for the national identification system, upgrading data quality, and supporting the strengthening of the Bangladesh Election Commission to administer the national identification system.
    The credit is from the International Development Association (IDA), the World Bank’s concessionary lending arm. The credit carries a 0.75% service charge, a maturity of 40 years, including a 10-year grace period. For a link to our latest blog post, Moving Towards a ‘Digital Bangladesh’: http://blogs.worldbank.org/endpovertyinsouthasia/moving-towards-digital-bangladesh
    Contacts:
    In Washington: Benjamin S. Crow, (202) 473 1729 , bcrow@worldbank.org
    In Dhaka: Mehrin Mahbub, (880-2) 8159001, mmahbub@worldbank.org
    For more information, please visit the Projects website
    Permanent URL for this page: http://go.worldbank.org/808VL8TEM0 Unsubscribe: http://go.worldbank.org/B4HC51EME0

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